Anoura caudifer (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ) is a phyllostomid commonly called the tailed tailless bat. This is a relatively small species with. The tailed tailless bat (Anoura caudifer) is a species of leaf-nosed bat from South America. (Source: Wikipedia. Photo: (c) ssolari, some rights reserved (CC. In the present study we analyzed the diet of the bat Anoura caudifer at the southernmost limit of its geographic distribution, the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.

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Monik Oprea, Ludmilla M. Wilson; Anoura caudifer Chiroptera: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, is a phyllostomid commonly called the tailed tailless bat. This is a relatively small species with an elongated muzzle, a long and protractile tongue, and generally dark brown pelage; it is 1 of 8 species in the genus Anoura.

This species is a habitat generalist occurring in mesic tropical forests from sea level to 1, m elevation. It is frequently captured in many locations along its geographical distribution and it is not considered of special conservation concern. Glossoph [ aga ].

Anoura caudifera Cabrera, Tamsitt and Valdivieso, A [ noura ]. Anoura caudifera Handley, C ontext and C ontent. Order Chiroptera, suborder Microchiroptera, family Phyllostomidae, subfamily Glossophaginae, tribe Glossophagini Baker et al. The genus Anoura contains 8 species Mantilla-Meluk and Baker Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ; A.

N omenclatural N otes. Following the Codeif the author does not indicate if the name is an adjective or a substantive, it should be treated as a noun in apposition, and the original spelling maintained. This species usually has a tiny tail, distinguishing it from Anoura geoffroyi Geoffroy’s tailless batA. It has a small but well-developed calcar, whereas the calcar of A. The cranium of these 2 species is also similar, but in A. Measurements on specimens in the field showed that the tongue in A.

Another useful character to distinguish A. The interfemoral membrane of A. Anoura cultrata Handley’s tailless bat differs from A. It is perhaps not caudiferr that A. Mantilla-Meluk and Baker used discriminant analyses to separate the 2. The slightly smaller A. Anoura caudifer is a relatively small caudifrr, with total length between 47 and 70 mm, tail varying from 3 to 6 mm, forearm between 34 and 39 mm, and mass ranging from 8.

The muzzle is elongated, and the upper border at the height of the eyes is notably convex Fig. The tongue caydifer long and protractile. The nose leaf is small but well defined, taller than wide, and attached to the upper lip. The upper lip is smooth, lacking wrinkles or papillae. A deep furrow divides the lower lip medially, with 2 thick callosities on each side.

The ears are short, separated, and rounded; the antitragus is absent and the tragus is normal, short, and without crenulations Barquez et al.

Used with permission of the photographer M. The skull is elongated, but length of the rostrum is smaller than length of the braincase, and the rostrum widens in the area of the canines Fig.

Postorbital constriction is insignificant. Zygomatic arches are thin and the middle portion is frequently cartilaginous in young individuals; in mature specimens the arches are ossified and complete.


A sagittal crest is absent; a slight lambdoidal crest is present. Tympanic bullae are small. Basiophenoidal pits are present but shallow Barquez et al. Photo by Lauren E.

Figure 1 from Anoura caudifer ( Chiroptera : Phyllostomidae ) – Semantic Scholar

Pelage is dense and silky, extending along both the dorsal and ventral sides, over part of the plagiopatagium, propatagium, and one-half of the forearm. Color is generally dark brown; the dorsal hairs are gray at the base and the ventral hairs are uncolored.

Areas behind the ears, back of the neck, and anterior one-half of the back are paler or reddish in some specimens. Membranes cuadifer dark brown to black Barquez et al. Descriptions of pelage color in species of the A. Tamsitt and Valdivieso observed that the occurrence of light and dark individuals of A.

The uropatagium is semicircular and bordered by a fringe of sparse hairs. The tail is usually present but can be absent in some specimens Simmons and Voss ; Williams and Genoways The tail is small, included in the uropatagium, and generally extends to its border. The calcar is small, slightly shorter than the length of the foot Albuja-V. The thumb is short and thin, and its nail is short. Means and ranges mm; rounded to tenths of external characters for 9 males and 12 females in parentheses collected from different localities in Ecuador Albuja-V.

Means and ranges mm for the same males and females in parentheses cited above for length of skull were: Although geographic variation is slight in this species, there is some indication that animals from Argentina average slightly larger than those from Ecuador. Means and ranges mm of external characters for 8 specimens no determination on sex in Argentina were: Means and ranges mm; rounded to tenths for cranial caudifed dental measurements for the same specimens cited above were: In cudifer to those from Argentina, A.

Means and ranges mm; rounded to tenths of the forearm for 4 males and 3 females in parentheses collected at State Park of Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dias et al.

Means and ranges mm for cranial and dental measurements for the same males and females in parentheses cited above were: In Ecuador, it inhabits low and medium elevations on both sides of the Andes Albuja-V. There are records in Argentina from Salta and Jujuy provinces Barquez et al. On the eastern and western slopes of the Andes A.

This species is a habitat generalist occurring in mesic tropical forests from sea level to 1, m elevation Eisenberg Geographic distribution of Anoura caudiferwith dots indicating marginal localities. Map used with permission of A. This specimen was documented by Winge from caves near Lagoa Santa, aniura the nomenclature was updated by de Paula-Couto Members of the genus Anoura have the 3rd largest brains in the subfamily Glossophaginae Baron et al.

Within the genus, although A.

Tailed tailless bat – Wikipedia

The vomeronasal organ of A. The lumen is crescentric or nearly round.


The vomeronasal organ retains a cartilaginous capsule anteriorly, which becomes partially ossified posteriorly, before ending as a small remnant next to the palate. The nasal septum is thick and contains glands that also are observed in the lateral nasal wall. A huge blood sinus is present lateral to the receptor-free epithelium.

The vomeronasal neuroepithelium is approximately 38 mm in height, whereas the nonciliated receptor-free epithelium is approximately 12 mm. Large vomeronasal nerve fascicles are seen under the vomeronasal neuroepithelium Bhatnagar and Smith The I1 and I2 are small, paired, and separated by a wide space; I1 is smaller than I2.

Premolars are laterally compressed and increase in size from the 2nd to the 4th; P2 is reduced and separated from the canine and P3 by a small space; P3 is separated from P2 and P4; and P4 is in contact at its posterior border with M1 Barquez et al.

All premolars are triangular in lateral view except for P2; the central cusp is elevated and sharp, and the anterior and posterior cusps are smaller.

Tailed tailless bat

The molars have a strong depression similar to that in the genus Glossophagaalthough more laterally compressed.

The absence of lower incisors, a diagnostic dental trait, provides a space through which the tongue extends during feeding Barquez et al. Lower premolars are thin; p2 is almost in contact with the canine, but separated from p3 by a small space. No gaps separate the remaining premolars and molars. The paraconid is much smaller than the rest of the cusps.

The coronoid process caudicer the mandible is not well developed, and is about the same height as the mandibular condyle Barquez et al. The canines are not exceptionally enlarged, the premolars are not reduced, and the 1st lower premolar p2 is no larger than other premolars Nagorsen and Tamsitt This species, both in laboratory experiments and in cave roosts, remains homeothermic at cool ambient temperatures McNab Thus, while remaining homeothermic, A.

The basal metabolic rate was calculated for 7 specimens of A. Reproductive individuals tend to be captured in the months of August—November, but an asynchronous reproductive cycle was predicted for Anoura caudifer Wilson A 2nd cauvifer from nearby Piquirenda Viejo was slightly more developed in mid-November, but the last molars had not erupted completely.

This species may have a long reproductive period in Argentina, with births occurring from September through November Barquez et al. Anoura caudifer appears to be reproductive at different times in different parts of its range. Seasonal polyestry was suggested for A. However, these data are not sufficient to define precisely the reproductive cycle of A. Three nonreproductive females were recorded at the end of the dry season.

Of the 3 males collected, only 1 was reproductive. The habitat specificity and elevational range required by Anoura caudifera species primarily associated with higher elevations, results in a smaller distribution than implied in range maps.