The Legend of Etana and the history and decipherment of Sumerian and The Epic of Gilgamesh ( BC) was perhaps the first literary work in history. by Aaron Wyckoff. The Igigi, the gods of creation, created a city and laid its foundation, and called it Kish. But the people were without a king. Etana was according to the legend, the first king after the Flood. In the Epic, Etana is childless; meanwhile an eagle has ignored his own children’s advice and.

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Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Epic of Creation)

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Etana Epicancient Mesopotamian tale concerned with the question of dynastic succession. Soon the clouds dissipated and he saw himself in a large well-lit room whose glassed windows let in the magic of sunset hour, the rainbow colors of the changing skies. Oof is a new, well done contract, in contrast to the broken oath between the eagle and the snake. When the eagle recovers, he tries to find it on his own and when he does not succeed, he brings Etana to heaven in order to search for it together.

I came to some conclusions. When Etana stops feeling firm ground under his feet, he suddenly feels incapable of the mediation and wants to return.

Presumably the more beer you drank the more challenging the puzzles became. According to the Sumerian king listhe reigned after the deluge. It is not entirely clear how the serpent managed to defeat the eagle. Over the centuries many civilizations rose and fell in the Fertile Crescent and many adopted cuneiform for their language. In my view, the main problem which every interpretation has to address is join- ing the two parts together, as already mentioned. In this way, the help becomes mutual.


Nevertheless, it is not my aim to base my interpretation of the myth on external sources. Unfortunately, this is the last scene preserved and there is no way to find out how much text is absent at the end.

Etana – Wikipedia

Remember me on this computer. University of Chicago Press. The Epic of Gilgamesh includes references to Siduri, a brewster and barmaid, and the Hymn to Ninkasi the goddess of beerca. The several heavens and heavenly palaces which Etana passes are commonplace in Hekhalot texts and later mystical literature.

Although I find all the folkloristic and other parallels very interesting, I do not think it is possible to base any interpretation of the myth principally on them. You are the answer to all my whys, World Soul I reflect on my own’. Although your humble author is tolerant and sensitive of other cultures and world-views, he is only to a certain point: The room was long, a hall fit for kings, and upon a dais he saw Her.

Notable rulers of Sumer. Cited according to Barb We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. William Shakespeare, English poet, dramatist, and actor, often called the English national poet and considered….

No, better still, the trials of deserving my crown and as such becoming the living link between the people of the land and the gods, You in special. The animals alternate in bringing prey, which is always eaten by both of them, as well as their young.


The last transformation was totally unexpected, because he saw his own face transfigured by joy, younger and older images of himself in the most special moments of his life past and perhaps to come. The stone is a genuinely existing mineral, more precisely a geode, which rattles when shaken because it is hollow with another smaller stone inside.

This led to the birth of his son, Balih. Suddenly he also understood the eagle’s indecision to be accepted by the Goddess’ Gate. Thank you for your feedback.

Be- sides, several versions of the story might have been circulating in the oral lore. Furthermore, the eagle seems to be a more stable character in comparison to the snake. Even inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia could have perceived dif- ferent meanings of the ftana, depending on evolution of ideas over time as well as personal inclinations.

Etana rescued the eagle, and as a reward it carried him high up into the sky. Only their harmonious interconnections enable the human order to function properly. It is not only the eagle who is healed, but the whole relationship between the natural and the human world undergoes a heal- ing process.

In this paper, I will try to develop a similar line of thought and interpret the Myth of Etana as a coherent whole instead of two disparate stories.

Etana was an ancient Sumerian king of the city of Kish. The heavenward ascent of Etana is already attested on seals from the Akkadian period ca. Oxford and New York: