Download Citation on ResearchGate | DIALEKTIKA PENDIDIKAN ETIKA DALAM ISLAM (Analisis Pemikiran Ibnu Maskawaih) | p> Bahasa. View the profiles of people named Ibnu Maskawaih. Join Facebook to connect with Ibnu Maskawaih and others you may know. Facebook gives people the. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ya`qub, surnamed Miskawaih, is also called Abu ‘Ali al-Khazin. It is yet undecided whether he was himself Miskawaih or the son of.

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That is because the boy’s soul is maskawah, and as yet without imprint, and is ready and receptive to training, fit to be taken care of; when it finds itself in a bad social milieu, this leads to its being influenced by those around, and consequently its corruption: Man becomes a saint, a prophet.

The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh

The reason behind his emphasis on the possibility of refining character and purifying souls, and freeing the self from evil habits and the like, stems from his opinion about people, which is that they are either good by nature or good by reason of the law ibnh learning [29]. So Miskawayh held that what the boy has been accustomed to since youth will be of influence when he grows up; hence, he discussed the training of young boys, to which subject he devoted some pages of his book.

For more detail on the special effect of the writings of this period on Islamic civilization, in addition to Adam Metz, see: IqbalLahore, n.

Secondly, maskaawaih first form cannot go maskawwaih, because motion in place applies only to bodies, and accidents cannot go from one place to another. Maskawaiy the first place he follows Aristotle as commented upon by Porphyry. Also the boy is asked not to adorn himself with what women would wear, nor to wear a seal-ring except when this is needed, nor to wear his hair long. The training of young men and boys 4.

In this maqala, Miskawayh does not distinguish between evil and illness; and the psychological evils or illnesses he lists are: Ibn Miskawayh was one of the first to clearly describe a version of the idea of evolution.

Mskawaih devotes the whole of Chapter VIII to the problem of defining God affirmatively or negatively, and concludes that the negative way is the only possible way. Against the materialists he proves maskawwih existence of the soul on the ground that there is something in man which admits different and even opposed forms at the same time. Miskawayh is one of the outstanding personalities in the history of philosophical thought among the Muslims; so, as seems clear, his fame did not come about as a result of his involvement with teaching or with writing on education, in our modern terms, but his fame arose from his work in philosophy.


In addition, there are conditions in the environment surrounding the human being, inasmuch as human society is one of the basic maskawaaih of reaching supreme happiness. Here his expose is less philosophical but richer in detail.

Miskawaih engaged himself too much in the study of alchemy, together with Abu al-Tayyib al-Razi, the alchemist. From another angle, training or education can be regarded as realizing specified aims, equally whether this be from the viewpoint of the one who assumes responsibility for it, or of the one subjected to it. Painting atelier of the Ottoman Sultan dating from But we can gather something of its form from Miskawaih’s Tahdhib al-Akhlaq.

Thus it was a maskaaaih happiness which the human being could reach through mazkawaih effort, and striving to acquire the sciences which would make his thought inclusive of all the areas and all existent beings, and make him free himself from material things so as to reach the degree of wisdom whereby to grasp human perfection.

This is that the soul, as has been said, is divided into three faculties, the appetitive, the irascible, and the rational. The former is condemnable, the latter praiseworthy.

History of Philosophy in Islam: IV. The Neo-Platonic Aristotelians of the East: 3. Ibn Maskawaih

He says that the first existent which emanates from God is the first intelligence which so says Miskawaih rather strangely is the same as the active intellect. See also, ‘Izzat, The essential part of Miskawaih’s ethics begins from the third chapter pp. His ethics is genetic 34 being based on the place and position of man in the cosmic evolution maskadaih, religious, and practical in character.

For his treatment ibnh philosophy, he owes much to al-Farabi, particularly in his effort to conciliate Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus. Stationers’ shops also appeared, for selling maskawakh or renting them out to readers; and there was increased competition among the caliphs, viziers, learned men, and others, to acquire books and to establish their own private libraries in their castles, and to gather people together for learned discussions on the content of these books, in what might resemble seminars or study circles today.


This is not the statement of Darwin.

He makes a specific mention of the love of man for God, of disciple for teacher, and of son for his parents in a graded series, as pointed out earlier. Kitab al-Ashribah on drinks. Secondly, the importance of education for children and adults. There are two kinds of life: Everything begins from Him and everything returns to Him. Our aim in this book is that we should acquire for our souls a character, whereby we shall give rise to deeds which are all fine and good, yet will be easy for us, with no trouble nor hardship.

He treats the subject in al-Fauz al-Asghar and Tahdhib al-Akhlaq. This point will be treated in detail later. The first part of Fauz al-Asghar dealing with the demonstration of the existence of God is clear, terse, and solid.

Miskawayh was a prominent figure in the intellectual and cultural life of his time. Beginning with these views, Miskawayh presents the methods that are followed in training and refining the boy’s soul. Stupidity and ignorance, caused by failure to investigate and exercise the soul with the teachings spoken by wise men.

Only a few,–Maskawaih thinks,–are by nature good, and. In addition, Miskawayh is very clearly distinguished from others who worked in science and philosophy, within Islamic civilization, by the fact that he indicated clearly and distinctly the sources on which he drew; something which proves his scientific reliability, and also emphasizes his patent admiration for the branches of learning which he studied, well known and widespread throughout the Islamic community.

Miskawaih was essentially a historian and moralist. Miskawayh ends his discussion of this opinion by explaining his view that every person can be changed; having done this, he indicates its influence on young men and boys, and the necessity to train them.